Decoding | Is the world’s best job market for women in Quebec?

“Mooman doesn’t work, he has a lot of work. Comedian Yvonne Deschamps’s joke in the 1960s and 1970s is no longer true: Quebec is today one of the places in the world that better integrate women – especially mothers – into the job market.

Vincent Brosso BeaulieuVincent Brosso Beaulieu

Employment rate: Quebec second in the world

First of all, Quebec ranks second out of 32 OECD countries (31 countries and Quebec) in terms of employment rate among women aged 25 to 54, or 83.4% in 2019. Only Sweden is better than Quebec. As the employment rate was 83.7% for women. Canada (without Quebec) reaches 15e 32nd, with 78.7% employment rate among women. Average of OECD countries: 70.2%.

The Divide Between Men and Women: Quebec First in the World

So Quebec is the second place in the world where women are better integrated in the labor market.

But you can also say it is the best place. Because the gap between the employment rate for men and women (ages 25 to 54) in Quebec is the smallest of the 32 OECD countries, according to the organization’s included figures. Sherbrooke University.

In Quebec, for 2019, the employment rate for women aged 25 to 54 was 83.4% and for men of the same age group 86.8%. The unfavorable gap for women is 3.4 percentage points. The average unfavorable gap for women in 32 OECD countries: 17.1 points, or five times more than Quebec.

First grade or second grade? For Professor Luke Goodboot, the final ranking does not matter.

In terms of female employment rate, Quebec has made great progress and is now among the top states. This is even more the case when we look specifically at mothers of children younger than 6 years old.

Luke Goodboot holds a Chair in Tax and Public Finance at the University of Sherbrooke

Note that the employment rate for men aged 25 to 54 in Quebec (86.3%) is lower than the OECD average (87.3%) for 2019. From 1996 to 2019, the employment rate for men increased from 88% to 87% in The average is in OECD countries, and from 84.1% to 86.8% in Quebec.

Thanks to CPEs Pauline Maroua

If Quebec is one of the places in the world where women have the most access to the job market, thanks in large part to the Network of Early Childhood Centers (CPE) established by Pauline Maroua, then Minister of Education in 1997.

After nearly 25 years of establishing subsidized childcare centers (current rate: $ 8.50 a day), the effects on the employment rate for women are impressive: down from 65.5% in 1996 (OECD average: 62.4 %) To 83.4% in 2019 (OECD average: 70%). This 17.9-point jump in Quebec is the fifth largest among the 32 OECD countries.

Only Spain (+ 27.7 points), Ireland (+ 22.4), Chile (+21.5) and the Netherlands (+19.1) have made a bigger jump than Quebec since 1996. But of these four countries, only the Netherlands managed to climb to the top of the employment rate. Females, it ranked seventh with 81.1%.

“The Quebec“ experience ”is attracting the attention of some organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or the Bank of Canada because of its positive effects on employment,” Professor Luke Goodbott and Susie Saint Serney, researcher in the Chair in Tax and Public Finance, wrote in a research note published this week CD Howe Institute. For the first time, M. Goodboot and M.I St-Cerny was able to calculate the employment rate for mothers aged 25 to 54 in Quebec and the rest of Canada.

3.3 billion a year

A low-contribution parenting daycare program costs the Quebec government roughly $ 2.7 billion annually. By adding the tax credit to childcare expenditures (for unsupported daycare centers), which cost 610 million a year, we came to a total bill of 3.3 billion annually for the Quebec Government’s Family Policy.

Will Canada imitate Quebec?

The federal government of Justin Trudeau, in its fall economic update, has announced its desire to create a national childcare program, taking into account what has been in Quebec since 1997. However, Ottawa must come to an agreement with the provinces to pay part of the costs. Where possible, Quebec can receive annual financial compensation from Ottawa to pay a portion of the cost of its network of childcare centers.

Women earn 22% less than men

However, much remains to be done on employment equality in Quebec. For example, women’s average gross income is 22% lower than that of men, according to Statistics Canada figures for those aged 15 and over in 2019. In Canada, the gender wage gap is 25%. According to 2014 OECD figures, the average gender wage gap is 10% in France, 17% in Germany and the United Kingdom, 18% in the United States, 19% in Canada, and 26% in Japan.

The employment rate figures for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development remain between the ages of 25 and 54.

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