© Nicholas Alleger and Claire Chazod
We all come from a single cell that first reproduces into identical cells, and then differentiates from each other. After many stages of differentiation, cells are as diverse as those in leather (The skin is an organ consisting of several layers of tissue. It plays, among other things, …) orIntestine (The intestine is a part of the digestive system that extends from the outlet of the stomach to…) are produced. In a study published in the journal Nature Communicationsscientists show that Coincidence (In ordinary language, the word opportunity is used to express a lack of competence, otherwise…) It can decide the future identity of the cell.
During cell differentiation, identity changes are finely regulated by gene induction cascades, usually through exogenous endogenous changes (eg. Can (Activation may refer to:) sequences of transcription factors) or exogenous (molecular and/or mechanical with neighboring cells) exchanges of the cell. It is these initial changes that determine the pathway of differentiation. However, in some cases, coincidence can determine the identity of the future cell.
some days (The day or day is the interval between sunrise and sunset, which is…) distance fertilization (Fertilization, for organized organisms, is the stage of reproduction…) (3 days in the mouse (The term mouse is an obscure generic name that could be assigned to French speakers before…) and 6 in humans), which is the first differentiation of cells infetus (Genein (from Ancient Greek ἔμϐρυον / embron)…)separating future cells from placenta (The placenta is a physically and biologically unique organ that connects the fetus in…)done by job internal (In France, this name denotes a doctor, pharmacist or dental surgeon, in …) or extracellular, while the second differentiation into cells of the ectoderm (which produces all cells of the recipient individual) is based on a stochastic mechanism. to become the outer cell need to (Needs at the level of interaction between the individual and the environment. Are…) Several specific transcription factors cooperate to initiate differentiation. However, in pre-differentiated progenitor cells, these transcription factors have variable expression levels from cell to cell in an uncoordinated manner. A chance of finding these factors will cause a small number of cells out of approximately 25 together (In set theory, a set intuitively identifies a set…) At levels sufficient to trigger differentiation. Only these cells will be able to transform into the ectoderm. Thus, it is the random co-expression of these factors that would engage the cell in differentiation.
Scientists have identified an endoderm differentiation factor, NANOG, and shown that without this factor there is no differentiation, cells remain blocked at stadium (stadion (from the ancient Greek στ? διον stadion, from the verb…) From the progenitor, then the growth of the fetus stops. However, NANOG alone does not appear to be able to induce differentiation, demonstrating that only cooperation with other, still unknown factors, allows such differentiation.
The random decision mechanism was mainly studied in bacteria (Bacteria (Bacteria) are prokaryotic unicellular organisms, characterized by …) or in drovsilia (fruit fly (from the Greek drosos: dew and weasel: who loves) an insect…) But it is still little explored in mammals despite its participation in hematopoiesis.
This discovery is closely related to Research (Scientific research identifies in the first place all actions taken with a view to …) On Embryonic Stem Cells (2007 Nobel Prize for Evans, Capicci and Smithys) and induced pluripotent cells iPS (Ips is a genus of insects in the order Coleoptera, subfamily…) (Nobel Prize 2012 for Yamanaka) because they are equal in the laboratory ectoderm cells. ES and iPS cells can produce any cell of a An individual (The Wiktionary is a free and open source dictionary project similar to Wikipedia (both…) Hence, they are major players in Cell therapy (In the context of biological therapies, cell therapy aims to treat cells…). Thus understanding how these ectodermal cells are produced advances the knowledge and use of stem and inducible stem cells.
At three days of development in mice (or 6 in humans), the progenitor cells contain a random combination of NANOG (N) and various factors (F1, F2, etc.). Only cells with the correct combination of factors (N, F1 and F2; circled in green) will subsequently differentiate into the ectoderm. Right panel: immunoblotting of a mouse embryo at three days of development with ectoderm cells (red). Scale bar: 10 μm.
© Nicholas Alleger and Claire Chazod
Nicholas Alleger, Sabine Chauvo, Cynthia Dennis, Yuan Reno, Dimitri Meistermann, Lorena Valverde Estrella, Pierre Bouchen, Michele Cohen-Tanodji, Laurent David and Claire Chazod.
Nature Communications June 21, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1038 / s41467-022-30858-8
institute hereditary (Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ = birth) is…), Reproduction and Development – GReD (Inserm/CNRS/Clermont Auvergne University) – 28 Dunant Place. 63,000 Clermont-Ferrand.
Claire Chazaud – Inserm Research Director – claire.chazaud at california st (Uca is a genus of crabs in the family Ocypodidae. It includes about a hundred species of…).Fr
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